|Peter Young||Alice Lai||Micah Hodosh||Julia Hockenmaier|
To produce the denotation graph, we have created an image caption corpus consisting of 158,915 crowd-sourced captions describing 31,783 images. This is an extension of our previous Flickr 8k Dataset. The new images and captions focus on people involved in everyday activities and events.
We define ⟦ s ⟧, the visual denotation of a linguistic expression s (e.g. a sentence, verb phrase or noun phrase), to be the set of images that depict what it describes. The denotation graph pairs a large number of linguistic expressions with their visual denotations, and defines a large subsumption hierarchy over these expressions. Consider the following fragment of our denotation graph1:
We provide below the data files that make up the denotation graph we have created from the Flickr 30k Dataset. The graph consists of a set of strings that define the nodes of the graph (dog, running, grass, etc...), the edges that connect those nodes (dog running can be created from running by adding the subject dog, and can be created from dog by adding the verb running), and the images that depict each string in the graph.
Additionally, we have computed two different kinds of denotational similarity metrics computed on the nodes in the graph: (normalized) pointwise mutual information, PMI(s, t), and conditional probabilities, P(s | t ). Our paper shows that these similarity metrics are at least as beneficial as distributional similarities for two tasks that require semantic inference. For example:
|s||PMI(s, play baseball)||P(play baseball | s)|
|try to tag||0.616||0.517|
|slide into base||0.569||0.278|
The approximate textual entailment task generates textual entailment items using the Flickr 30k Dataset and our denotation graph. We use captions from the Flickr 30k Dataset as premises, and try to determine if they entail strings from the denotation graph.
|Premises:||A woman with dark hair in bending, open mouthed, towards the back of a dark headed toddler's head.|
|A dark-haired woman has her mouth open and is hugging a little girl while sitting on a red blanket.|
|A grown lady is snuggling on the couch with a young girl and the lady has a frightened look.|
|A mom holding her child on a red sofa while they are both having fun.|